Ms Bolor-Erdene: Satellites play an important role to increase “Digital Connectivity” and reducing the “Digital Divide” in Mongolia

[vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text] The Operations Committee continues a series of interviews with the members of the Intersputnik Operations Committee called the “Voice of Satellite Industry”. These interviews are done by the Chairwoman of the Operations Committee Ms. Ksenia Drozdova, who talks to very interesting people representing companies and agencies from space, telecom and IT sectors all across the globe. This time an interview below brings us to the northern part of Asia, to Mongolia. The “Voice of Satellite Industry” presents an interview with Ms. Bolor-Erdene*, a Chairwoman of the Communication and Information Technology Authority of Mongolia. Mrs. DROZDOVA: First of all, could you please tell us about the history of space technology in Mongolia briefly? Ms. BOLOR-ERDENE: In 1965, Mongolia joined the Intercosmos program to study space for peaceful purposes, which marks the beginning of space exploration. At that time, the Soviet Union made a significant contribution to the development of space technology in our country. In 1970, the first Satellite Ground Station named the Orbit was established. As a result, one of the Mongolian space missions was to send a Mongolian cosmonaut into space. The mission was successfully achieved in 1981 with the Mongolian-Soviet joint space flight under the Intercosmos program. Since 1990, briefly, we have been focusing on the development of the application of satellite technology and preparing human resources. Mrs. DROZDOVA: As we know the digital transformation has been bringing huge impacts on each country and each sector of society. What do you think of the benefits of digital transformation in the space industry? Could you please share us with the perspective of digital transformation in Mongolia? Ms. BOLOR-ERDENE: The digital transformation in the space industry could bring the following benefits, including 1. Digital technologies and a new entrepreneurial spirit are shaping a new space economy; 2. Digital transformations have lowered the barrier of entry; 3. The emergence of private companies are seeking commercial opportunities in space exploration and exploitation; 4. Emerging space nations like Mongolia benefit from space technologies and applications in supporting sustainable development and economic growth; 5. The Public-Private Partnership (PPP) has become a reality in the space field. In terms of digital transformation in Mongolia, the government of Mongolia has set the goal of becoming a Digital Nation over the next five years. The goal includes six strategic goals: improving access to digital infrastructure, developing e-governance, ensuring cybersecurity at all levels, improving public digital literacy, supporting technology-based innovation, and accelerating the development of other industries through information technology. I would say that the first step in our journey towards becoming a digital nation was the launch of the e-Mongolia platform in October 2020. So looking at the statistics of the e-Mongolia platform, we have seen remarkable results so far. For example, the platform currently integrated with 25 government organizations and it has more than 200 public services. So more than 1,000,000 people, which is half of the adult population have received online services through the E-Mongolia platform. Within this year, we are planning to integrate 592 public services into the e-Mongolia system. Mrs. DROZDOVA: When traveling across boundless territories of Mongolia, one can see that almost every settlement or village is equipped with satellite communication, and there are numerous satellite TV dishes on the roofs of yurts. All visitors to Mongolia point out the high quality and relatively low cost of mobile communications in the country while there are a lot of rural and distant areas, as well as difficult geographical terrain in Mongolia. As we know two-thirds of the country's population live in the capital city of Ulaanbaatar and other big cities. More than 1 million people live a nomadic life. It seems like good conditions for the wide use of satellite communications. Could you please tell us more about the status of Satcom development in Mongolia, and how membership in Intersputnik helps you to use satellite communications for improving the social and economic live of Mongolians? Ms. BOLOR-ERDENE: In Mongolia, almost every city and province are connected with high-speed, broadband fiber optic networks as well as with the high quality and relatively low cost of mobile communications. However, Mongolia is in terms of its area the 18th largest sovereign state and the most sparsely populated country in the world. There are a lot of rural and distant areas, as well as difficult geographical terrain in Mongolia. Approximately 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic. In this case, satellite technology plays a vital role to eliminate the Digital Divide and increasing Digital Connectivity in our country. The significance of communication satellite and observation satellite technology is enormous too. Mongolia is one of the founding members of the Intersputnik International Organization of Space Communications established in 1971. We always greatly value our collaboration with Intersputnik. Intersputnik helps us to use satellite communications for improving the social and economic live of Mongolians a lot. I would like to mention a few of them. For instance, the “Satellite Business Development Program” aimed at expanding the business activities of member countries, Capacity building training in space technology development, and international regulatory cooperation in the space field, etc. Mrs. DROZDOVA: My next question is connected with the previous one. National GEO communications satellites have become a trend recently. More and more nations all across the globe are launching their proprietary national independent satellite systems. Does Mongolia have any plans to join this trend? And one more question. Some of such nations have launched a satellite in cooperation with other satellite operators or nations. So, in case there are plans for national satellite, what do you think of implementation this project via a cooperative model in Intersputnik, with the participation of other nations or signatories interested in their proprietary satellite segment? Ms. BOLOR-ERDENE: We have been seeing many developments related to National GEO communications satellites in recent years. More and more nations all across the globe are launching their proprietary national independent satellite systems. As we know, GEO satellite orbit is a limited natural resource. In 2012, the Government of Mongolia approved the National Satellite Program which aimed to develop the GEO orbital slot assigned by the ITU and to launch national independent satellite systems. As an emerging space nation, Mongolia has been facing many challenges. But we have been making significant progress in protecting and developing our orbital slot, training our professionals, expanding international cooperation, and finding a cost-effective and affordable GEO satellite system. Regarding implementing a national satellite project via a cooperative model in Intersputnik, we would be happy to consider any workable proposal. Mrs. DROZDOVA: Satellites will remain a vital part of future telecom infrastructure, especially in countries with large rural and distant territories. Moreover, modern telecom technology development also takes satellites into account. LEO broadband mega-constellations development, satellite integration into 5G RAN protocol, etc. In the framework of future development of ICT infrastructure in your country, how Intersputnik can assist Mongolia? Ms. BOLOR-ERDENE: Because of the recent satellite technology developments and achievements, I would like to highlight heavy investments in LEO broadband high-speed internet service and integration of 5G technologies in LEO Mega-Constellations globally. I think that these trends could bring significant impacts in the satellite markets as well as in the entire telecom markets. That is why it seems to me that the boundaries between space and terrestrial telecom services are blurred. The convergence of technologies in the ICT sector has become a reality. I would say that satellites could play an important role to increase “Digital Connectivity” and reducing the “Digital Divide” in Mongolia. Generally, in the framework of the “VISION-2050” long-term development policy of Mongolia, we would be happy to cooperate with Intersputnik to develop natural disaster warning systems, border and area monitoring, remote education, and health services with the help of space technologies, to strengthen the capacity and infrastructure to study, own and use space technologies, and to create national products and services based on space technologies. In the end, I’d like to wish our Intersputnik colleagues the Happy 50th Anniversary! And I am looking forward to the next 50 years of collaboration. Mrs. DROZDOVA: Thank you very much. ---- * Ms. Bolor-Erdene is a chairwoman at the Communication and Information Technology Authority in Mongolia where she aims to bring better changes to both public and government through the digital governance program, E-Mongolia. She graduated from the University of Oxford with a master's degree in Public Policy in 2017. After graduation, she implemented a project, titled “Nomads in the Digital Age” with Pathways for Prosperity Commission, which is funded by the Gates Foundation, co-chaired by Melinda Gates, which aims to accelerate inclusive development through technological development and digital readiness. Before her graduation, she started her journey from international organizations such as ADB, The World Bank, Millennium Challenge Corporation, International Institute for Sustainable Development, The Cabinet Office of the United Kingdom, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, and European Bank for Reconstruction Development. SOURCE: Ms. Bolor-Erdene: Satellites play an important role to increase “Digital Connectivity” and reducing the “Digital Divide” in Mongolia. (intersputnik.online) [/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]


A tale of two countries: How Benin and Mongolia are fast-tracking digital government

[vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]Benin and Mongolia do not at first appear to have many similarities. One is a relatively small, but densely populated country in West Africa. The other is a large, but sparsely populated country in Central Asia. Yet, citizens in both countries have something in common: since 2020 they’ve had access to hundreds of new public services online. In March 2020, the Government of Benin launched its national public services portal called service-public.bj which provides access to 70 transactional services like a passport or building permit applications. It also delivers clear and coherent guidance on over 500 other public services. Soon after this, Benin launched an e-learning platform for public university students and a website with the results of national public exams. Meanwhile, in Mongolia, the Government launched a platform available both online and through a smartphone app called e-Mongolia. E-Mongolia gives citizens access to the 181 most in-demand government services. Five months after its launch, e-Mongolia had been used by 700,000 people – that’s over 35 percent of its adult population. These new online services came at a perfect time, as governments tried to limit in-person interactions with citizens during the Covid-19 crisis. This article looks at how these achievements were made possible, as well as the common features behind these two countries’ digital transformation success stories. 1. Supportive political leaders and committed operational leaders In both countries, political leaders have put the digital transformation of public services at the core of their agendas. Patrice Talon, President of Benin since 2016, made this clear in his five-year action plan ‘Bénin Révélé’. He also names connectivity, digital literacy, and smart administration as key development areas. The same applies in Mongolia. The 40-year-old and recently appointed Prime Minister Luvsannamsrain Oyun-Erdene has affirmed that building a digital nation is currently the country’s top priority. But strong political support on its own is not enough. In Benin and Mongolia, much of the credit should be given to the women in charge of driving the digital transformation of their respective governments: Aurélie Adam Soulé Zoumarou and Bolor-Erdene Battsengel. Aurélie Adam Soulé Zoumarou is the Minister of Digital Affairs and Digitalisation of Benin. She was appointed to this role by President Patrice Talon in 2017. Since then, she has led a wide range of programs covering digital infrastructures, smart administration, and support for technology start-up companies. Bolor-Erdene Battsengels was appointed the Chairwoman of Mongolia’s Communications and Information Technology Authority (CITA) in July 2020. At 27 years old, she is the youngest person and first female to hold this position. For her first three months in CITA, she oversaw the implementation of the e-Mongolia platform. 2. Empowered central digital agencies The digital transformation of the governments of Benin and Mongolia also relies on an efficient governance model, where a central digital agency is empowered to drive change. The Information Services and Systems Agency of Benin (ASSI) is the country’s central organization in charge of executing flagship projects in digital government. It provides strategic and operational assistance to all government organizations and ensures the coherence of information systems and services across public administration. The ASSI is directly under the direct supervision of the Presidency. In Mongolia, the Communications and Information Technology Authority (CITA) is in charge of both ICT policymaking and its implementation and it is responsible for the development of e-Mongolia. The fact CITA is placed under the authority of the Prime Minister gives it great legitimacy in leading cross-government projects. In both countries, that direct link to government decision-makers has proven paramount to the success of these agencies, reaffirming their authority as well as allowing for swift transformation when necessary. 3. Existing connectivity and digital infrastructure Benin and Mongolia did not wait for the Covid-19 crisis to kickstart their digital transformation. The speed at which they were able to launch services in 2020 reflects the groundwork they laid in previous years. Likewise, the early adoption of digital services by citizens could not have been possible without the significant efforts demonstrated by both countries in terms of infrastructure development in the past few years. Since 2016, 2,000 kilometers of optical fiber has been installed across Benin which has helped the country more than double its internet coverage. And in order to reach citizens from all communities, they have set up a network of over 40 Community Digital Points, which are effectively public spaces where citizens can access computers and get online. Alongside connectivity infrastructure, Benin and Mongolia have invested in digital infrastructure. It is worth mentioning that both countries have based their data infrastructure on the open source data exchange solution X-Road. Mongolia started to use the X-Road model as early as 2016 to connect the information systems of all its ministries. But it took time to implement the system, and encourage data sharing across public administrations. 4. Engagement with citizens, and the private sector Both Benin and Mongolia have understood the value of working hand-in-hand with civil society and the private sector. In October 2020 – prior to the development of a national e-payment platform – the ASSI organized a discovery workshop with various players in the financial sector. It welcomed comments and ideas from private actors to inform the development and implementation of the platform. The Government of Benin was also receptive to help from the private sector and civil society actors when the Covid-19 crisis started. Start-up companies, SMEs, large corporates, academics, NGOs, and government agencies gathered in 2020 to create ‘Taskforce INNOV Covid-19’ and brainstorm on innovative solutions to the challenges caused by the crisis. In Mongolia, CITA engaged with citizens to prioritize the services to include in the e-Mongolia platform. They conducted a survey, available both online and on paper. They also tracked the time citizens spent queuing to access public services. They kept engaging with citizens while developing the platform, to make sure all information was clear, and that services were easy to use. In order to go fast, and keep momentum, CITA outsourced the development of the platform. However, they created a small project coordination unit in-house, to hold service providers accountable, and coordinate all stakeholders from the 28 government organizations involved. 2020: the year when previous hard work paid dividends Benin and Mongolia made tremendous progress in government digital transformation last year. But that’s the result of a long, slow process that started years before. They’d already laid the essential foundations they could build on, including recruiting and empowering committed leaders, putting the right digital governance in place, investing in digital infrastructure, and creating channels to engage with civil society and private sector actors. Compared with many countries, the Covid-19 crisis has not had such a significant impact on the digital transformation plans of Benin and Mongolia because they already knew where they were heading – the pandemic only confirmed they were going the right way. Claire Bedoui is Principal Consultant at Public Digital.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]


How to build a ‘digital nation’: Perspectives from Mongolia

[vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]In 2020, the Mongolian government set out its five-year mission to build a ‘digital nation’, harnessing data and technology to facilitate innovation, streamline public services and diversify Mongolia’s mining-reliant economy. In July of that year, I was appointed as the Chairwoman of the Communications and Information Technology Authority of Mongolia and, in the three months that followed, oversaw the implementation of the first step in our journey towards becoming a digital nation: the launch of the e-Mongolia platform. E-Mongolia is an online platform which currently provides 181 of the most in-demand government services – from getting an ID card to ordering a passport or applying for a business licence. The benefits of such digitalisation are numerous, both for individual citizens and for the public service as a whole. With the click of a few buttons, citizens can now access services that might previously have required lengthy journeys across town, time taken off work for appointments, and dealing with multiple government departments or organisations. According to recent government research based on the total number of public services accessed in 2019, citizens are expected to save a total of 3,581 hours per year as a result of the 181 services currently available through e-Mongolia. Moreover, this digitalisation enables us to streamline public service delivery by reducing bureaucracy, decreasing duplication of effort between government organisations and suppressing public frustration. As a result of e-Mongolia, the red-tape bureaucracy was significantly reduced, as well as lower- and mid-level corruption. Complaints regarding bribery decreased by 20–30% in the last three months. What’s more, it is estimated that a total of MNT 24 billion (approximately USD 8.2 million) will be saved annually through reduced paperwork, postage, fuel costs and labour. Another remarkable result is the direct and indirect positive impact on the environment. It is estimated that, as the platform currently stands, it will save 5,913 trees, 11,880 tons of greenhouse gases and about 1 million tons of water per year. Today, over 500,000 Mongolians use e-Mongolia to access government-provided services. The timing could not have been better – from November 2020, Mongolia started to see domestic transmissions of COVID-19. E-Mongolia enabled citizens to access services online and have ID cards or passports delivered to their homes during the lockdown. We also worked to develop and integrate a COVID-19 ‘test and trace’ tool on the platform, so citizens can stay informed of transmission rates in their local area. The launch of the e-Mongolia platform is therefore considered to be one of the major measures against the pandemic. The successful launch of e-Mongolia was the result of a widespread collaboration between the Minister and Chief of the Cabinet Secretariat and the Communications and Information Technology Authority, and other stakeholders across both the public and private sectors. The next step is to ensure that the ICT sector’s legal and regulatory environments are equipped to deal with ongoing digital development: Mongolia’s newly formed parliament has established the Innovation and Digital Policy Standing Committee to drive ICT development, and new laws covering key issues such as personal data protection and cybersecurity are being submitted to parliament for approval. These laws are key to establishing the ecosystem of a digital nation and creating an environment to accelerate technology-based start-ups and innovations, as well as encourage investment in them. The Government of Mongolia is currently discussing the establishment of a data centre in the countryside with various corporations from Silicon Valley as part of its efforts to establish a friendlier environment for foreign investors and tech companies. As one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world – and one which has retained its nomadic cultures – digitalisation in Mongolia offers an important opportunity to increase accessibility to government services and make the public service work better for its citizens. Mongolia’s new prime minister, Oyun-Erdene Luvsannamsrai, has affirmed that building a digital nation is currently Mongolia’s top priority. With the successful launch of e-Mongolia, and plans to add 500 new services to the platform in 2021 now underway, we are well on the way to achieving our five-year goal of becoming a digital nation. Bolor-Erdene Battsengel is an alumna of the Blavatnik School of Government (MPP Class of 2016), now the Chairwoman of the Communications and Information Technology Authority of Mongolia. Her work to implement Mongolia’s digital nation strategy builds upon a toolkit project she undertook with the Blavatnik School-based Pathways for Prosperity Commission (now Digital Pathways at Oxford), which assessed the current digital development of the country and prepared a Strategy Primer for the Mongolian Government to transit to the digital economy. Source: blogs.bsg.ox.ac.uk [/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]


Mongolia’s E-Governance Quest

In the last decade, Mongolia showed progress in e-governance, but there’s more yet to do. By Bolor Lkhaajav September 18, 2020 Mongolia’s e-governance is a topic often overshadowed by the cyber activities of the country’s large neighbors — Russia and China. However, the coronavirus pandemic gave an advantage to the Mongolian government in implementing long-overdue digital governance practices. Mongolia’s implementation of e-governance services, known as “E-Mongolia,” will enhance public services, maximize efficiency, and most importantly, diminishing the deep-rooted bureaucracy and nepotism that have been impeding government services for some time. In the last decade, Mongolia showed progress in e-governance. The United Nations E-Government Knowledgebase has tracked Mongolia’s E-governance Development Index (EGDI). The data shows that in 2003 Mongolia scored 0.343 and ranked 103 of 193 in comparison to the United States (0.9271, ranked 1), Singapore (0.7463, ranked 12), and South Korea (0.7441, ranked 13). By 2020, Mongolia showed significant improvement in the index, with its score moving up to 0.6497 and its rank to 92, whereas other previous e-governance world leaders have changed. Denmark has superseded the U.S. with a score of 0.9758, taking the top rank; South Korea, now ranked 2 with a score of 0.9560, has surpassed Singapore (0.9150, ranked 11). These indicators show how both developed and developing nations have been adopting e-governance models. Mongolia did not miss the wave of change to e-governance. During President Elbegdorj Tsakhia’s tenure (2009-2017), he introduced “Transparent Accounts” for financial transparency for government spending. Although this approach helped government agencies monitor one another’s fiscal matters, it didn’t quite serve the public’s interest. In adopting e-governance services, Mongolian policymakers looked to Estonia — a small-state with a population of just 1.3 million in 2020 ranked 3 in the U.N. EGDI — and Singapore — with 5.6 million people and, as noted, above a rank of 11 in 2020 — as possible models. While Mongolia’s e-governance has improved, it still lags behind top-ranked nations. The chief information officer of Estonia, Siim Sikkut, told the author during the “State of Digital Conference” on September 11, “There are three main areas for small-states to adopt e-governance: connectivity, structures, and changing the business model of government.” Connectivity connects rural areas, reducing the digital divide, which Mongolia needs to consider. Government service structures should not overlap, and e-governance becomes inefficient when there are too many government agencies. And lastly, by changing the business model of the government, small states like Mongolia and Estonia can depend on innovation, investment, and procurement.  Mongolia’s push for e-governance services also stems from its highly metropolitan, globally-connected population of 3.3 million. As of 2020, two-thirds of Mongolia’s population are digitally connected via some form of social media, such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Instagram, and others. As evidence of the pervasive influence of social media, the 2017 presidential election was disrupted by a whistleblower who went live on Facebook to expose high-level corruption, known as the “60 million (MNT) case.” With such a digitally connected population, e-governance had to become a reality at some point. In 2019, the government of Mongolia passed resolution No. 73, the “National Policy on E-Governance.” The main objective of the policy framework was to enhance the already-existing e-governance structure on a legislative and a practical level. The policy aims to utilize cyberspace, information technology, and innovation to expedite government services to reduce backlogs and eliminate government agency bureaucracy. The incumbent administration’s Government Action Plan for 2020-2024 includes the implementation of E-Mongolia services and will provide a soft-opening of 182 government services as of October 1, 2020. The implementation of the e-governance services aims to eliminate front-desk and mid-level corruption which has drained public via bribery for decades. The director of communications and information technology authority, Bolor-Erdene Battsengel, told the author, “In implementing E-Mongolia services, the transition period is crucial. Because of the existing digital divide, the service will allow some time for people to adapt and adjust to the variety of government e-services. Once the transition period ends, beginning in 2021, E-Mongolia is expected to provide 492 government services.” Moreover, “the public will have free access to uploading, submitting, and tracking documents—hence, expediting the government service without waiting in line, especially with an outbreak like COVID-19.” Furthermore, Mongolia’s e-governance includes facial recognition technology (FRT) to improve public safety, particularly in the capital, Ulaanbaatar. By 2021, Ulaanbaatar is expected to install 6,822 facial recognition cameras. Although E-Mongolia seeks to modernize and expedite government services, some experts have legal concerns. According to a cyber law expert, Galbaatar Lkhagvasuren, “while implementing FRTs are tech-savvy, there are legal concerns that need to be addressed, prepared, and implemented. The inefficiency of the currently developing FR technologies could turn into a human rights issue very quickly without legal justifications.” Source: The Diplomat


Tomorrow of Blockchain…

Throughout history, every technological revolution has brought the rapid progress and major changes in economic, social, and political development in which we live, and also a whole new way of accelerating the process to speed up re-engineering to humanity. We humankind has experienced the three major industrial revolutions creating and developing with stages those such as industrial mechanics, steam engines, and railways during the 1st revolution; the electricity, mass production, and assembly line in the 2nd revolution; and computer, electronic and automated manufacturing during the 3rd revolution as scientists consider. Then the experts have agreed since Professor Klaus Schwab the founder and executive chairman of the World Economic Forum introduced firstly about the concept that we are now moving to the fourth industrial revolution at the World Economic Forum in 2016. The world leaders are paying particular attention to the preparation of the revolution providing supports to their research and academic institutions to develop strategies and policies. Even though human work performance was simplified and labor productivity was increased during the three industrial revolutions, now it is different in the 4th industrial revolution and the manufacturing by artificial intelligence which is to replace human intelligence would be managed through the Internet of things, in otherwise, artificial-intelligence-driven machines would outsmart humanity driving. Figure 1. Stages/Phases of the Industrial revolutions International research and analysis, consulting service organizations, and experts consider that the key technologies that will strongly affect the fourth generation of the industry as follows: these including, -          Internet of Things (IoT), -          Biotechnology -          Smart Home -          Smart City -          Big data -          Driverless car -          Artificial Intelligence -          Robotics -          Nanotechnology -          Blockchain -          Shared Economy -          3D printing -          Neurotechnologies -          Virtual Reality (VR), -          Augmented Reality (AR). The reason to point out the Blockchain technology called as a trust-building machine from those the technologies bringing revolutions is that blockchain technology-based innovation is acting as creative disruptive innovation technology for the startups and bringing more entrepreneurship greatly in the ICT sector somewhat start-up businesses were grown like the mushrooms after raining during the Dot-Com boom in the mid-90s. What is Blockchain? Blockchain technology is often understood as Bitcoin or electronic money, but only one application of Blockchain technology which is the base of Bitcoin is the cryptocoins/cryptocurrencies and it can be compared to the only visible part of the iceberg. How do we check if we buy expensive elegant brand products? How do you know and validate if it is actual? Can you deny that the salesperson sold A copy products or it is given during transportation even if purchased from the brand stores? How can you prove the original of inimitable artworks or fine arts which are worth millions of dollars when you buy? The best copy of imitation? Or are stolen? In a word, blockchain technology is the technology enabling to validate these. It enables the users to know and control/supervise all the data of the products or items starting from its manufacturers or sources, and when are made, stored, distributed, and delivered. Some technocrats/experts emphasize that the Web 1.0 era client-server technology provides information internet while the online contents are developed, exchanged, and created big data through social media and networking sites by Web 2.0 stage users. But the next revolution stage in the Web 3.0 phase creates internet value on a decentralized network powered by a Blockchain solution that enables us to make ownership validation, controlling, transferring, and trust-building in online environment. Blockchain is a digital ledger and its entry records are entered in chronicle order, unmodifiable, secure (validated by cryptographic and secure hash algorithms), with continuous storages and all records traceable is based on a peer-to-peer decentralized network of nodes based solution. When blockchain is useful? Professional experts consider that controlling the supply chain from end-to-end customers will enable to detect fraudulent supply, fraud and expel intermediate fraudulent distributors; to certify, validate ownership, transfer of any sources of such as products and goods; to save immutable records which are not able to delete; and to use the ledger with stakeholders when it is needed. How can public services use Blockchain technology? Blockchain technology is being used as a digital property and a source of information/data which is immutable and unchangeable as validated paper documents including all data of public services in a digital environment such as all types of certificates and identifications (of birth, marriage, death, criminal, residency identification, and educational, etc.); all types of ownership, assets, and registration (of land ownership, car and insurance registration, health insurance, military, and officer registration, electoral result and voter registration, organizational registration, and real estate ownership, etc.); all types of licenses, regulation logs, verification registration, construction approval, firearms license, criminal case journal creation and registration, enforcement execution records, etc.; and all these digital assets and records can be stored and operated on Blockchain. World nations strategy and policy on Blockchain technology Governments around the world face many major concerns and challenges on creating of policy and regulatory environment on Blockchain technology such as the lack of knowledge and understanding of the technology, the lack of certain concept, the importance of its usage in public services, how it can be standardized, and possibilities in trialing. A total of  202 types of blockchain technology initiatives of usage in public services in the world 45 countries under three main domains such as developing strategies to conduct research and analysis, validate those, categorize, develop, do piloting and testing, and including in incubations which are as shown detailed in Figure 2. Figure 2. Blockchain initiatives of Government organizations, OECD analysis, by March 2018. I emphasize some cases on the initiatives from international, for example, UAE has approved the “Emirates Blockchain Strategy-2021” paper in April 2018, and its main goal is to transfer 50 percent of its state digital documents to the Blockchain platform by the 2021 year. Thus, this means that blockchain technology will affect on works and lifestyles of its people which well-suited to the technology by saving their work time, cost-saving, time-saving, and resource-efficient. After the government's blockchain strategy implementation, it is estimated that 11 billion of Arabian currency transactions and records daily work will be digitalized, and will help ease the day-to-day processing of documents of 398 million papers and 77 million working hours. Also, in Dubai, blockchain technology is defined as an economic new opportunity and a new digital innovation wave, and its government and private sectors together established the “Global Blockchain council” under the “Dubai Blockchain Strategy” document.  And this public-private council discusses the further implementation of all possible blockchain projects involving many organizations. Following the “Dubai Blockchain Strategy”, Blockchain will be used in sectors such as real estate, fintech, fiscal, banking, health, transportation, urban planning, smart energy, e-commerce trade, and tourism sectors. it is estimated that  114 million tons of CO2 carbon dioxide emissions will be reduced in a year by saving 100 million document papers. Tomorrow of Blockchain Now Blockchain technology is at its beginning stage of research and development. Following to analysis of the international research and advisory services companies and experts, Blockchain-based application programs will be used in most markets in the world by the year 2022, becoming more common in the next five to ten years, with nearly 55 percent of total usage is in the financial and capital markets, Global Marathon which is intended to the day of tomorrow of Blockchain technology in public services for the revolution in society, economy and business has just started and has made its first one or two steps once the attention of the governments of 45 countries has paid on it.  There are equal opportunities to participate in the marathon for all countries in the world not depending on its level of development. But what will be the next day for full adoption of blockchain technology in Mongolia? Of course, there are full utilization of remittance and retailers payment service in financial sector using the cryptocurrency easily; enable to trade at stock market without expensive intermediary brokerage service; tax and insurance and related other registrations  are verified on blockchain; exporting minerals able to track and trace that originated from Mongolia; livestock origination of place and all the history such as vaccination, exporting supply chain can easy monitoring used by blockchain platform; in cashmere supply chain industry eliminated expensive intermediaries so that herders more earn profits while cashmere price gone down for consumers; citizens able to electronic voting using their mobile phone with Blockchain powered application; government service able to deliver on smart e-government open, transparent, accountable, responsible and auditable system powered by Blockchain, thus our countries social and economic situation increased, citizens experiencing digital democracy more illustrated for the blockchain adopted tomorrow in Mongolia. Do we have a recent advantage and opportunity for Mongolians? Yes, there is. It is obvious that there are fewer difficulties to learn, adapt, develop Blockchain technology especially in the soil of nationwide following to factors such as our country’s smartphones and internet usage which exceeds the world average; our population is few 3.1 million and 64 percent of the total population is under 35 years old if compares to other countries. Will we make tomorrow of Blockchain for our country in the near future? Or further? Will wait for another country's development and follow? Will you lead? Probably, it can be a rare occasion and history of the technological revolution to bring the opportunities to keep up with the global development if we work together from today with planning and implementing. Moreover, it might enable opportunities to supply technical solutions and developing technology and to export intellectual capacity to other countries besides they come for our lessons learned. Therefore, for our Government of Mongolia, the time has already come to take a comprehensive approach/measures gradually to implement such as to start blockchain technology research and development studies, to approve and set up related policy and strategy, to develop blockchain modeling with defining relevant important sectors, to collaborate tightly with state and public partnerships and research and non-governmental organizations, and to make piloting and testing successful national program and projects. When we reach the outcome step by step, the value of the blockchain and the socio-economic benefits are not comparable to the present.


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